# CONTROL ALGORITHM DESCRIPTION

The controller algorithms are described in the following with these signals used in the formulas:

r(t) - Setpoint

y(t) - Measured Variable

u(t) - Output

x(t) - Output Tracking Variable

e(t) - Error between Setpoint and Measured Variable

T - Sample Interval

### 1. ANN

The detailed algorithm for the 1-For-3 ANN controller is lengthy and patented. We will just give a conceptual formula in the following: where Kr is the ANN Response Knob. The ANN weighting factors are updating at every sample through some learning algorithms and need not to be tuned manually.

### 2. PID Standard where e(t) = r(t) - y(t); This formula is the analog version in time domain. The digital version of the PID is as follows: where e, e, and e are the time sampled error signal e(t), e is the current sample of e(t), and u is the current sample of u(t). Kp is the Proportional Gain, Ki is the Integral Gain in second/repeat, and Kd is the Derivative Gain in repeat/second.

### 3. PID Error-Squared and, where SGN is the sign function.

### 3. PID Error-Squared where LLVu is the Lower Limit Value of u, and

ULVu is the Upper Limit Value of u.

Notice that the controller output is always in range of 0 to 100 percent no matter what the LLVu and ULVu are.

### 5. Ramp ### 6. Integrator where r(t) is the input. The formula is an analog version, and its digital version is as follows: where, u and r are the current samples of u(t) and r(t), respectively. where Gc(S) = U(S)/R(S), which is the Laplace transfer function of the lead-lag block.

### 8. Second-Order Filter where Gc(S) is the Laplace transfer function of the block. where Gc(S) is the Laplace transfer function of the block, K is the DC gain, Tc is the time constant, and t (Tau) is the dead time.

### 10. Linear ### 11. Ratio ### 12. High Select ### 13. Low Select ### 14. Middle Select ### 15. Limit  